四庫全書 之 本草綱目 free
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《本草綱目》是一部集16世紀以前,中國本草學大成的著作。作者是明朝的李時珍,撰成於萬曆六年(1578年),萬曆二十三年(1596年)在金陵(今南京)正式刊行。從《本草綱目》完稿至刻印,中間經歷了十多年的時間,原因是當時《本草綱目》沒有名家的讚許與政府的支持,李時珍到過蘄州、黃州和武昌,都找不到承印的書商。 1579年,他赴當時中國刻印書籍的中心南京尋求出版,但仍未成功。 1590年,他終於得到南京藏書家兼出版商胡承龍的幫助,出錢刻印。可惜,李時珍未及三年便卒於家,看不到自己的著作問世。
李時珍用了大約27年的時間才修改編寫完成《本草綱目》,經過了三次改寫,於萬曆六年(1578年)才最終完成。在這個過程中,李時珍參考了800多種書籍,多次去各地進行實地考察,採集樣本,耗費了非常大的心血。

《本草綱目》是以宋朝唐慎微的《證類本草》為資料主體增刪考訂而成的。清朝乾隆三十年(1765年)藥物學家趙學敏撰《本草綱目拾遺》,用意在拾遺補正《本草綱目》,其中新增716種藥材,補充161種藥物內容,糾舉錯誤34條。

《本草綱目》共52卷,載藥1892種(其中李時珍新增藥物374種),書中附有藥物圖1109幅,方劑11096首(其中8000餘首是李時珍自己收集和擬定的),約190萬字,分為16部(水、火、土、金石、草、谷、菜、果、木、服器、蟲、鱗、介、禽、獸、人)60類。每種藥物分列釋名(確定名稱)、集解(敘述產地)、正誤(更正過去文獻的錯誤)、修治(炮製方法)、氣味、主治、發明(前三項指分析藥物的功能)、附方(收集民間流傳的藥方)等項。全書收錄植物藥有881種,附錄61種,共942種,再加上具名未用植物153種,共計1095種,佔全部藥物總數的58%。李時珍把植物分為草部、谷部、菜部、果部、木部五部,又把草部分為山草、芳草、溼草、毒草、蔓草、水草、石草、苔草、雜草等九類。
影響

《本草綱目》改進了中國傳統的分類方法,格式比較統一,敍述也比較科學和精密,例如:把廣義的“蟲”藥擴充到106種,其中昆蟲藥為73種,分為“卵生”、 “化生”和“濕生”三類[2]。對動物和植物的分類學的發展具有很大意義。

《本草綱目》糾正了前人的許多錯誤之處,如南星與虎掌,本來是同一種藥物,過去卻誤認為兩種藥物;以前葳蕤、女萎認為是同藥,李氏經過鑑別則確認為兩種;蘇頌在《圖經本草》將天花、括樓分為兩處,其實是同一種植物;前人誤認“馬精入地變為鎖陽”、“草子可以變魚”,一一予以糾正之。並且在本書中還加入了許多新的藥物。對某些藥物的療效,李時珍還通過自己的經驗作了進一步的描述。本書還載敘了大量寶貴的醫學資料,除了大量附方、驗方及治驗病案外,還有一些有用的醫學史料。另外李時珍並駁斥陳藏器的《本草拾遺》,認為吃人肉療羸瘵是錯誤的。

本書不僅是一部藥物學著作,還是一部具有世界性影響的博物學著作,書中涉及的內容極為廣泛,在生物、化學、天文、地理、地質、採礦乃至於歷史方面都有一定的貢獻。

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"Compendium of Materia Medica" is a set of 16 centuries ago, the culmination of the Chinese herbal medicine works. The author is Li Ming, Zhuancheng in Wanli six years (1578), Wanli 23 years (1596) in Nanking (now Nanjing) official print and publish. From the "Compendium of Materia Medica" finalized to the marking, intermediate experienced ten years time, the reason was the "Compendium of Materia Medica" without the support of famous praise with the government, Li visited Qizhou, Huangzhou and Wuchang, printing can not be found booksellers. In 1579, he went to China was marking the publication of books in the center of Nanjing sought without success. In 1590, he finally got Nanjing bibliophile and publisher Hu Chenglong help pay for engraving. Unfortunately, Li's no time for three years they died at home, see his book published.
Li took about 27 years to modify their completion, "Compendium of Materia Medica", after three rewritten in Wanli six years (1578) was finalized. In this process, Li reference to more than 800 kinds of books, several field trips to the country, collecting samples, spent a very big effort.

"Compendium of Materia Medica" is Song Tang Shenwei of "Syndrome of Materia Medica" for the data subject Textual additions made. Qianlong thirty years (1765) essays drug experts Zhao Xuemin, "Compendium of Materia Medica", the intention in Supplements correction "Compendium of Materia Medica", which added 716 kinds of medicinal herbs, 161 kinds of medicines supplementary content, censure error 34.

"Compendium of Materia Medica" a total of 52 volumes, the drug 1892 kinds (of which 374 kinds of Li's new drugs), 1109 Figure book with drugs, prescription 11096 (of which more than 8000 are prepared and Li's own collection), about 190 million words, divided into 16 (water, fire, earth, stone, grass, grain, vegetables, fruit, wood, sERVER, insects, scales, rings, birds, animals, people) 60 class. Each drug breakdown Shiming (determine the name), Variorum (narrative origin), or false (correct mistakes of the past literature), Shuji (processing methods), smell, indications, invention (analysis refers to the first three drugs), With side (collect folklore prescription) other items. The book included 881 botanical species, 61 kinds of the appendix, a total of 942 kinds, plus 153 kinds of plants not to be named, a total of 1095 kinds, accounting for 58% of the total drug. Li, the plant is divided into five Grass, Valley department, the Department of vegetables, fruit portions, Kibe, again part of the grass mountain grass, grass, wet grass, poisonous weeds, overgrown grass, weeds, stone grass, moss grass, weeds and other nine categories.
influences

"Compendium of Materia Medica" to improve the traditional Chinese method of classification, more unified format, also described more scientific and accurate, such as: the generalized "worm" expanded to 106 kinds of drugs, including drugs insects 73 species, divided into "oviparous" "metaplasia" and "wet" into three categories [2]. Has great significance for the development of animal and plant taxonomy.

"Compendium of Materia Medica" corrected a lot wrong with the previous studies, such as the Southern Star and tiger palm, was originally the same drug, but mistaken past two drugs; luxuriantly before women wilt think the same drug, Lee through the identification confirmation of two; Su Song in "Maps of Materia Medica" smallpox, including building is divided into two, in fact, is the same plant; the previous misidentification "horse into the ground into a fine Cynomorium", "grass seed can become fish" eleven to correct it. In this book and also added a number of new drugs. The efficacy of certain drugs, Li also through their own experiences are further described. The book also contains a lot of valuable Syria and medical information, in addition to a large number of attached side, prescription and medical records governance experience, there are some useful historical medicine. Also Li and Chen refuted the possession of "Herbal Supplements" that cannibalism treatment Lei Zhai is wrong.

This book is not only a pharmacology book, or have a worldwide impact of natural history books, the contents of the book involves a very wide range, in biology, chemistry, astronomy, geography, geology, mining and even have some historical aspects of the contribution .

Content rating: Everyone

Requires OS: 4.0 and up

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