四庫全書 之 黃帝內經素問 FREE
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《黃帝內經》是現存最早中醫理論著作,對後世中醫學理論的奠定有深遠的影響。相傳是黃帝與岐伯、雷公、伯高、俞跗、少師、鬼臾區、少俞等多位大臣討論醫學的記述,但傳統上多認為此書成書於戰國時期,但也有學者認為成書應在西漢中。
西漢漢成帝時,劉向等人曾大規模校理古籍,李柱國則負責校理方伎,原書目先載於劉向《別錄》,後載於其子劉歆《七略》,今二書已佚,但其目錄內容被東漢班固引錄於《漢書》〈藝文志〉中,後世仍可以推見其原貌。 《漢書·藝文志·方技略》載有醫經、經方、神仙和房中四種中醫典籍。其中醫經有:

《黃帝內經》十八卷,《外經》三十七卷;
《扁鵲內經》九卷,《外經》十二卷;
《白氏內經》三十八卷,《外經》三十六卷,《旁篇》二十五卷。

這是歷史上對《黃帝內經》最早的記錄,學者認為《黃帝內經》的編著及命名很可能是成自劉向之手。

在南北朝的時候,《黃帝內經》已經因傳抄及戰亂而散失,分成《素問》及《針經》兩種版本,分別流傳。最早對內經進行整理的學者,是晉朝的皇甫謐,他根據《素問》、《針經》及《明堂孔穴》,編著成《黃帝三部針灸甲乙經》一書。在《甲乙經》序中,他說:“按《七略》、《藝文志》,《黃帝內經》十八卷,今有《針經》九卷,《素問》九卷,二九十八卷,即內經也,亦有所亡失。”

南北朝時出現了第一本為《素問》作校注的書,作者為全元起。全元起校注的《素問》本,北宋時尚存,以後便散失不見​​了。今從林億等所校訂的《重廣補注黃帝內經素問》中,尚可看到全元起編排的捲目次第和少量注文。

唐初楊上善將《靈樞》、《素問》的條文,根據內容重新分類,編次成《黃帝內經太素》三十卷。此書雖然早於王冰,但流傳不廣,對於後世的影響較小,在宋朝時已經失傳。

《隋書·經籍志》中記載有黃帝素問九卷,梁八卷;黃帝針經九卷。這個版本應該就是全元起及楊上善所採用的底本,其中有許多重複及錯誤難解的地方,因此並沒有吸引很多醫家對它進行深入研究,在王冰本出現之後,就被取代了。

對後世影響最大的內經版本,首推唐代王冰註釋的《黃帝內經素問》。王冰深入研究《素問》,對當時通行的版本提出批評並決心進行整理,耗時十二年,在唐朝寶應年間完成出版。王冰以其師的“張公秘本”作為藍本,補入原本失傳的七卷,並參校其它流傳版本的《素問》加以整理、註釋、編排次序,完成二十四卷的巨著。王冰將原來的內容用黑筆來寫,他加上的註釋用紅筆來寫,以區分原文與註釋之別。但在後來百年的傳抄之下,紅字又被寫成黑色,何處為王冰註釋,又難以區分了。王冰補入第七卷的七篇大論-《天元紀大論》、《五運行大論》、《五常政大論》、《六微旨大論》、《六元正紀大論》、 《氣交變大論》、《至真要大論》是運氣學說的主要依據。

王冰版的素問,後經北宋林億等重新校著後,稱為《重廣補注黃帝內經素問》(又稱《新校正》本),成為最完整的《素問》善本,也是官方考試的依據。現今流傳的《黃帝內經》就是這個版本,金元明清的醫家,註解內經時,也都採用這個版本。

內經“刺法論篇第七十二”和“本病論篇第七十三”兩篇,在王冰註釋時已經失傳。北宋林億校正《素問》時,曾提及當時有《素問亡篇》的流傳,劉溫舒《素問入式運氣論奧》中附有此兩篇原文,署為《素問遺篇》 。後世大多認為出自唐宋間人偽託。

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"Yellow Emperor" is the earliest extant writings of Chinese medicine theory, have a profound impact on future generations laid in medical theory. Legend has it that the Yellow Emperor and Qi Bo, Thunder, primary high, Yu tarsal, a small division, Ghost Yu District, less Yu and many other ministers to discuss described medicine, but more than that traditionally the book in the Warring States period, but some scholars believe to the book should be in the Western Han Dynasty.
    EMPEROR Western Han Dynasty, the Liu Xiang, who had a large-scale school management books, is responsible for school management on interspecific party trick, first set out in the original bibliography Liu Xiang, "Do not record", contained in its child after Liu Xin "Seven little," this two books has been lost, but the contents of the directory is recorded in the Han Ban cited "Han" , and later reflected in the original can still be pushed. "Han Yi Wen Fang Technology Strategy," contains medical classics, by the parties, and fairy room of four Chinese classics. Chinese medicine which have been:

    "Yellow Emperor" Eighteen volumes, "foreign economic relations" Thirty seven volumes;
    "Que Neijing" nine volumes, "foreign economic relations" Twelve volumes;
    "Pak Nei Jing" Thirty eight volumes, "foreign economic relations" Thirty six volumes, "next chapter" Twenty-five volumes.

    This is the history of the "Yellow Emperor" the first record, scholars believe that "Yellow Emperor" Bianzhu and named Liu Xiang is likely to be self-hand.

    In the Song Dynasty, when the "Yellow Emperor" has been a result of private copies and war and lost, into "Q" and two versions of "needleless" were circulated. After finishing the first domestic scholars, is the Mi Jin, according to him, "Q", "needleless" and "hall hole" Bianzhu to "Huangdi three acupuncture B by" a book. In the "B by" step, he said: "Press" Qi Lue "," History "," Yellow Emperor "Eighteen volumes, this has a" needleless "nine volumes," Q "nine volumes, twenty-nine eighteen volume, namely Canon also, there are Bereavements. "

    Northern and Southern Dynasties came in the first book is "Q" as a school note, the author of the whole yuan. Full school yuan note the "Q" of the Northern Song Dynasty fashion store, it would be a loss not seen. Lin Yi, etc. from this revision "heavy Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Guang sidebar", the volume can still see the first full directory yuan choreography and a small text note.

    Early Tang Yang on the good will "coffin", "Q" provisions, according to the content reclassification of arrangement as the "Yellow Emperor Tai Su" thirty volumes. Although the book early in Bing, but not widely spread, the smaller the impact on future generations, in the Song Dynasty have been lost.

    "Sui Shu Jing Ji Zhi" Yellow Emperor Su Wen describes a nine volumes, Liang eight volumes; Huangdi needle through nine volumes. This should be the full version yuan and Yang Shangshan originally adopted, many of which duplicate the error and obscure places, and therefore did not attract many doctors to its in-depth study, this occurred after Bing, was replaced.

    The greatest impact on future generations of Canon version, devaluation of the Tang Bing Note "Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen." Bing-depth study "Q" on the then current version of the criticism and the determination to organize, took twelve years in the Tang Dynasty Baoying years to complete the publication. Wang Bing in its division, "Zhang Gong secret of this" as a blueprint, up into seven volumes had lost, and participate in other school spread version of the "Q" to organize, annotate, ordering of complete volume twenty-four magnum opus. Bing original content with a black pen to write, he added red pen to write notes, to distinguish between the original and the comments of the other. But in later centuries under private copies, was written in black and red, where a Wang Bing Note, and difficult to distinguish. Bing up into the seventh volume of the seven big theory - "Tianyuan discipline big theory", "five runs big theory", "the five permanent members of National Chengchi University," "six micro-aimed big theory", "six Masaki big theory", " pay larger gas theory "," to the larger theory "is the main basis of doctrine.

    Q version of Bing, after after the Northern Song Lin Yi et recalibrated with, called "the Yellow Emperor Guang sidebar Q" (also known as the "New Calibration" the present), the most complete "Q" rare, is also an official test basis. Today the spread of the "Yellow Emperor" is the version of the Yuan, Ming and Qing physicians, internal notes over time, are also using this version.

    Nei Jing "acupuncture on the chapter seventy-second" and "seventy-third chapter on the disease," two, when Wang Bing Note has been lost. Song Lin Yi correction "Q" is mentioned there was "Su Wen chapter death" spread, Liu Wen Shu "Q-in on the Austrian luck" in the original language with this two, the Department for the "Q left articles" . Later considered by most people between Tang and Song Wei Tuo.

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